Return to Book Page. Eyewitness Accounts of the Restoration by Milton V. Get A Copy. Hardcover , pages. Published July 1st by Deseret Book Co first published More Details Original Title. Other Editions 3. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Eyewitness Accounts of the Restoration , please sign up.
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This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Today the term is generally employed for personal diaries, normally intended to remain private or to have a limited circulation amongst friends or relatives. The word "journal" may be sometimes used for "diary," but generally a diary has or intends to have daily entries, whereas journal-writing can be less frequent.
Although a diary may provide information for a memoir , autobiography or biography , it is generally written not with the intention of being published as it stands, but for the author's own use. In recent years, however, there is internal evidence in some diaries e. By extension the term diary is also used to mean a printed publication of a written diary; and may also refer to other terms of journal including electronic formats e.
The word diary comes from the Latin diarium "daily allowance," from dies "day". The earliest use of the word refers to a book in which a daily record was written was in Ben Jonson 's comedy Volpone in Pillowbooks of Japanese court ladies and Asian travel journals offer some aspects of this genre of writing, although they rarely consist exclusively of diurnal records. In the medieval Near East , Arabic diaries were written from before the 10th century. The earliest surviving diary of this era which most resembles the modern diary was that of Ibn Banna' in the 11th century.
His diary is the earliest known to be arranged in order of date ta'rikh in Arabic , very much like modern diaries. The precursors of the diary in the modern sense include daily notes of medieval mystics , concerned mostly with inward emotions and outward events perceived as spiritually important e. From the Renaissance on, some individuals wanted not only to record events, as in medieval chronicles and itineraries, but also to put down their own opinions and express their hopes and fears, without any intention to publish these notes. One of the early preserved examples is the anonymous Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris that covers the years —49, giving subjective commentaries on the current events.
Famous 14th- to 16th-century Renaissance examples, which appeared much later as books, were the diaries by the Florentines Buonaccorso Pitti and Gregorio Dati and the Venetian Marino Sanuto the Younger. Here we find records of even less important everyday occurrences together with much reflection, emotional experience and personal impressions. In the Smythson company created the first featherweight diary,  enabling diaries to be carried about.
Many diaries of notable figures have been published and form an important element of autobiographical literature. Samuel Pepys — is the earliest diarist who is well known today; his diaries, preserved in Magdalene College, Cambridge , were first transcribed and published in Pepys was amongst the first who took the diary beyond mere business transaction notation, into the realm of the personal.
Pepys' contemporary John Evelyn also kept a notable diary, and their works are among the most important primary sources for the English Restoration period, and consist of eyewitness accounts of many great events, such as the Great Plague of London , and the Great Fire of London. The practice of posthumous publication of diaries of literary and other notables began in the 19th century. As examples, the Grasmere Journal of Dorothy Wordsworth — was published in ; the Journals of Fanny Burney — were published in ; the diaries of Henry Crabb Robinson — were published in Among important U.
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Since the 19th century the publication of diaries by their authors has become commonplace — notably amongst politicians seeking justification but also amongst artists and litterateurs of all descriptions. Amongst late 20th-century British published political diaries, those of Richard Crossman , Tony Benn and Alan Clark are representative, the latter being more indiscreet in the tradition of the diaries of Chips Channon.
Harold Nicolson in the midth century covered both politics and the arts. One of the most famous modern diaries, widely read and translated, is the posthumously published The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank , who wrote it while in hiding during the German occupation of Amsterdam in the s. At the moment, it is not enough to discover the soul of an excellent prince, we also want to know the traits with which his hand has painted it, and we are impatient to possess the original of this precious Testament, sacred relic of a Martyr-King, presented … as facsimile, or as a perfect imitation.
The quest for "authentic history" was part of a decidedly modern approach to the past, and marked the beginning of modern historiography as well as the development of an understanding of cultural heritage. With reference to Friedrich Nietzsche's categorization of approaches to history, Stephen Bann has demonstrated the antiquarian foundations of the romantic "cult of the past. Romantic artists and writers, being inspired by the imaginative force of historical relics, developed a new dramatic and detail-loving way of historical representation.
Gervais Simon's troubadour-style depiction of Marie-Antoinette can be cited as an example of this kind of antiquarian romanticism in painting fig. Hence, I would like to come full circle and return to Marie-Antoinette's expiatory chapel and the question of how to solve the contradiction between authenticity and politics. Marie-Antoinette's Expiatory Chapel: Authenticity Behind the Staging As we have seen, Marie-Antoinette's expiatory chapel was, on the one hand, meant to be part of the political propaganda of the Restoration era.
Its decoration aims at an "image" of the queen that does not follow the rules of authenticity and historical truth, not least in the fact that its original architecture was destroyed.
On the other hand, contemporaries were fully aware of the location's historical significance and symbolic meaning as a place of remembrance. Knowing the high regard in which memoirs and historical truth in Restoration France were held, the transformation of the queen's cell into a chapel appears even more contradictory. Therefore, I want to ask whether the desire for authentic history was taken into consideration when the queen's cell was transformed.
The rise of modern historical consciousness in 18th-century France became manifest in an understanding of history as being a single, coherent narrative that doesn't repeat itself. The desire to erect expiatory memorials primarily at the sites of unique historical events, consequently highlighting the significance of where history actually took place, attests to the contemporary appreciation of historical uniqueness and its protagonists' individual fates.
As a result, the original form of Marie-Antoinette's former prison cell in the Conciergerie was destroyed, but it was not to be forgotten, as Peyre's drawing of the chapel indicates fig. He depicted not only the newly built monument, but also the genuine floor plan of the cell in His drawing shows the transformation of the site and therefore also allows the beholder to reconstruct the original cell in his mind. In situ, this mental reconstruction could be based upon tangible objects. There was one single conserved relic of the cell which was of great importance: the floor, distinctive due to its herringbone pattern fig.
Montjoye's representation of the floor plan of the cell puts special emphasis on its pattern by showing and even naming it fig. His account of Marie-Antoinette's incarceration had been the contemporaries' main historical source, which might explain why the characteristic floor pattern is also represented, among others, in Peyre's fig. Being the sole empirically verifiable residue, the herringbone pattern was meant to guarantee the pictures' historical integrity.
This becomes evident if one thinks about the paintings that were put in the expiatory chapel: the conserved floor which viewers can see and touch in reality is, at the same time, precisely depicted in Simon's and Drolling's paintings. Represented past and existing present overlap. Therefore, the pictures can authenticate the room by identifying it with the one in which the queen had prayed and suffered. In turn, reality can authenticate representation: the pictures may give the impression that they had been painted "on the spot.
At this point, the underlying idea of the chapel's interior decoration becomes clear. The authorities wanted the event to be visually represented where it had actually taken place; they aimed at an interplay of historical site and the depiction of history.
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In , journalist and art critic Edme Miel claimed that the best way of vividly communicating historical knowledge would be through pictures, and he called for a prolific interaction of historical representations and monuments:. The best way to write the history of France, and the best way to engrave it into the memory and the heart of the French, is to paint it. But these national representations will only exert all of their influence if they are truly monumental, that is if they decorate the sites where the events have taken place.
It is exactly the kind of "monumental painting" Miel had in mind that appeared in Marie-Antoinette's expiatory chapel: a pictorial historiography at the site of history. Here, pictures, historical traces, and the site itself equally serve as pillars of remembrance. Gervais Simon's detailed depiction of Marie-Antoinette's cell particularly serves this interpretation of a "monumental history painting. By contrast, Pajou and Drolling both concentrate on theatrical pathos and atmosphere. However, they, too, do try for historical truth.
Most likely, both follow the same model for the queen's looks and garment: a portrait by Aleksander Kucharski —  showing Marie-Antoinette as widow and prisoner in the Temple, painted in fig. This often-copied and well-known picture was famous for being one of the last portraits the queen actually posed for. A visitor to the Conciergerie in Paris today, comes across Marie-Antoinette not only once, but twice. On the one hand, there is a life-sized figure of the queen in a small room that attempts to provide a truthful reconstruction of the cell in which she was imprisoned in fig. On the other hand, Marie-Antoinette's fate is recalled through paintings hung in the cell that she actually inhabited until her execution and that had become an expiatory chapel in Thus, we are confronted with two different models of representation and transfer of historical knowledge.
The first one reproduces the historical environment—it stages authenticity for educational or entertainment purposes. The expiatory chapel, on the contrary, aims at a heroic, Christian re-interpretation of actual events—it stages history for political purposes.
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Nietzsche called this interpretive approach to history "monumental": the past is glorified; its heroes are worth emulating. Consequently, Marie-Antoinette's chapel in the Conciergerie is hard to define as to its mode of showing and communicating history: it oscillates between "monumental" and "antiquarian" approaches. Therefore, the chapel does not give a genuine impression, but it still permits one to recall what once was: authenticity is to be reconstructed in a discursive manner in which past and present are compared and connected with each other.
In this process, the paintings take over the role of the chapel's tourist guide: through them the visitor can imagine the historical events that took place there. It is, however, evident that authentic and symbolic content are not balanced—the desire for an idealized portrait of the queen and her fate clearly predominates in the chapel.
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Remembering the royal victims of the Revolution in Restoration France was more than just problematic; the legacy of the French Revolution played a significant role in the fervent political arguments of the time in which contemporaries struggled for nothing less than the identity of the French nation.
While the Revolution wasn't openly discussed, its political and historical evaluation was the issue underlying most political debates. Thus, the original appearance and design of Marie-Antoinette's prison cell had been demolished and, consequently, history cannot be experienced directly any more. That demolition was criticized by contemporaries: "How much more touching and solemn this cell had been in its state of historical indigence! As we traverse a corridor, my guide stops me and shows me a small door … This was the door of Marie-Antoinette's cell, the only thing of her prison that had been conserved the way it was after it had been transformed into a chapel by Louis XVIII.
Through this door the queen went to the Revolutionary Tribunal; through there she went to the scaffold …. If you had seen there the naked pavement, the naked wall, the barred cellar window, the camp beds of the queen and the gendarme, and the historical room divider that separated them, that would have given a profound emotion and an inexpressible impression. There exists a respectful vandalism that is even more outrageous than the hate-filled vandalism because it's foolish. You didn't see anything any more that had been in front of the queen's eyes, if not a little of the pavement.
Hugo's account exemplifies the historical consciousness of modern romanticism: he desires what Nietzsche would later call the "scent of mustiness"  that allows the beholder to empathize with history and gives an "inexpressible impression"—a subjective experience of remembrance that cannot be communicated through words. It is in fact impossible to have such an experience in Marie-Antoinette's expiatory chapel. Still, it would be wrong to contemplate the chapel only as a monument to serve propaganda.
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