CANARD - An arrangement in which the horizontal stabilizer and elevators of an aircraft are mounted in front of the main wing s. CEILING - 1 The heights above the earth's surface of the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena that is reported as "broken," "overcast," or "obscuration," and not classified as "thin" or "partial". The FAA issues airport operating certificates to all airports serving scheduled or unscheduled air carrier aircraft designed for more than 30 passenger seats. Certificated airports must meet minimum safety standards in accordance with FAR Part COMMUTER - An air carrier operator operating under 14 CFR that carries passengers on at least five round trips per week on at least one route between two or more points according to its published flight schedules that specify the times, day of the week, and places between which these flights are performed.
The aircraft that a commuter operates has 30 or fewer passenger seats and a payload capability of 7, or less.
ET AILERONS FRENCH EDITION DOCUMENT Original (PDF)
Similar to VFR. Controlled airspace is also that airspace within which all aircraft operators are subject to certain pilot qualifications, operating rules, and equipment requirements in FAR Part Each B, C, and D airspace area designated for an airport contains at least one primary airport around which the airspace is designated for specific designations and descriptions of the airspace classes, refer to FAR Part Class A formerly PCA - Positive Control Area generally, that airspace from 18,' mean sea level MSL up to and including flight level FL 60,' pressure altitude , including the airspace overlying the waters within 12 nautical miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous States and Alaska.
Unless otherwise authorized, all persons must operate their aircraft under IFR. Class B formerly TCA - Terminal Control Area Generally, that airspace from the surface to 10,' MSL surrounding the nation's busiest airports in terms of airport operations or passenger enplanements.
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The configuration of each Class B airspace area is individually tailored and consists of a surface area and two or more layers some Class B airspace areas resemble upside-down wedding cakes , and is designed to contain all published instrument procedures once an aircraft enters the airspace. An ATC clearance is required for all aircraft to operate in the area, and all aircraft that are so cleared receive separation services within the airspace.
The cloud clearance requirement for VFR operations is "clear of clouds. Although the configuration of each Class C area is individually tailored, the airspace usually consists of a surface area with a 5 nautical mile nm radius, an outer circle with a 10 nm radius that extends from 1,' to 4,' above the airport elevation and an outer area. Each person must establish two-way radio communications with the ATC facility providing air traffic services prior to entering the airspace and thereafter maintain those communications while within the airspace.
The configuration of each Class D airspace area is individually tailored and when instrument procedures are published, the airspace will normally be designed to contain the procedures. Arrival extensions for instrument approach procedures may be Class D or E airspace. Unless otherwise authorized, each person must establish two-way radio communications with the ATC facility providing air traffic services prior to entering the airspace and thereafter maintain those communications while in the airspace.
No separation services are provided to VFR aircraft. Class E airspace extends upward from either the surface or a designated altitude to the overlying or adjacent controlled airspace. When designated as a surface area, the airspace will be configured to contain all instrument procedures. Unless designated at a lower altitude, Class E airspace begins at 14,' MSL over the USA, including that airspace overlying the waters within 12 nautical miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous States and Alaska, up to, but not including 18,' MSL, and the airspace above Flight Level CRAB - A rudder-controlled yawing motion to compensate for a crosswind in maintaining a desired flight path, as in a landing approach.
English Translation of “aileron” | Collins French-English Dictionary
Latin: dirigo, to steer. DOPE - Preservative and pigmented coloring for fabric aircraft covering and paints, generally nitrate lacquer but generically used to denote all early shellac and coal-tar mixtures on up to present-day acrylics. DRAG - The resisting force exerted on an aircraft in its line of flight opposite in direction to its motion. DRIFT - The angle between the heading of an aircraft and its Track [flight path] over the ground as affected by winds.
Alcoa's version is commonly referred to as "Duraluminum," popularly used in aircaft manufacture. ELEVON - A hinged device on the rear portion of an aircraft wing combining the functions of an elevator and an aileron. Usually found on delta-wing aircraft, it can be moved in the same direction on either side of the aircraft to obtain longitudinal control, or differentially to obtain lateral control. Old French: empenner, to feather an arrow, from Latin penna, feather. Fairings are not load-bearing and, therefore, are not meant to carry any principal air loads placed on the airplane structure.
A commercial operator supplying fuel, maintenance, flight training, and other services at an airport. Ferry flights, under certain conditions, may be conducted under terms in a special flight permit.
Sometime referred to as Vertical Stabilizer. Rated one to five, with the first figure for clearness and the second second for loudness. FLARE - A simple maneuver performed moments before landing in which the nose of an aircraft is pitched up to minimize the touchdown rate of speed. In addition, at selected locations, FSSs provide Enroute Flight Advisory Service Flight Watch , take weather observations, issue airport advisories, and advise Customs and Immigration of transborder flights.
Direction of travel is upward and outward from the fuselage to the interplane struts. When lowered, it forms an extension of the wing surface; when raised, its nose protrudes below the wing, increasing DRAG and reducing YAW. Named for its inventor, British engineer Leslie George Frise. GLIDER - An unpowered aircraft capable of maintaining altitude only briefly after release from tow, then gliding to earth. A carryover expression from days when aircraft for the most part had no radios, and communication from a control tower was by means of a light-gun that beamed various green, red, and yellow signals to pilots in the air and on the ground.
A popular phrase, "3 green lights," refers to the instrument panel lights verifying that all three gears in a tri-gear aircraft are down and locked for safe landing. GYROPLANE - A rotorcraft whose rotors are not engine-driven, except for initial starting, but are made to rotate by action of the air when the rotorcraft is moving and whose means of propulsion, usually a conventional propeller, is independent of the rotor system. Originated with lake-based floating homes of the original German Zeppelins in which they were "hung" from cables, which explains the erroneous, oft-seen spelling of "hanger.
HYPOXIA - Deprivation of oxygen, aka "altitude sickness," which can adversely affect human judgment and movement at altitudes above 12,' with symptoms ranging from light dizziness to unconsciousness, even death at the extreme. It was a principal reason for pressurized aircraft. A radar-based system allowing ILS-equipped aircraft to find a runway and land when clouds may be as low as ' or lower for special circumstances.
KNOT - One nautical mile, about 1. Often relatively thin, especially along the leading edge, with most of its bulk near the center of the chord. Direction of travel is downward and outward from the fuselage. LIFT - The force exerted on the top of a moving airfoil as a low-pressure area [vacuum] that causes a wingform to rise. Direction of travel is upward from the bottom of the fuselage to the top of the interplane struts. While limiting the types of aircraft that could be flown by a Sport Pilot, it simplified requirements for a obtaining a pilot license and did not require a medical examination.
See LSA feature. LOFTING - Design or fabrication of a complex aircraft component, as with sheet metal, using actual-size patterns or plans, generally laid out on a floor. The term was borrowed from boat builders. LTA - Lighter-than-air craft, generally referring to powered blimps and dirigibles, but often also includes free balloons. Mach or m. This is used to advantage in baseball, in which the trajectory of a pitched ball is a distinct curve.
Named for physicist Heinrich Gustav Magnus Additional classifications are 1 Semi-Monocoque, where the skin is reinforced by longerons or bulkheads, but with no diagonal web members, and 2 Reinforced Shell, in which the skin is supported by a complete framework or structural members. French: monocoque, single shell. The average height of the surface of the sea for all stages of tide; used as a reference for elevations, and differentiated from AGL.
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